Selasa, 17 Mei 2011

Direct And Indirect Speech

Direct And Indirect Speech

Bilamana reported speech menyatakan kata-kata yang sebenarnya, ini disebut direct speech (kalimat langsung). Kalimat-kalimat tersebut tidak dihubungkan oleh “that” melainkan harus ditandai dengan (tanda baca) koma.

Bilamana reported speech memberikan isi pokok kata-kata yang dipakai oleh si pembicara dan bukan kata-kata yang sebenarnya ini disebut indirect speech (kalimat tidak langsung). Dalam indirect speech kalimat-kalimat itu dihubungkan dengan kata “that”.

Bentuk waktu reporting verb tidak diubah, akan tetapi bentuk waktu reported speech harus diubah berdasarkan atas bentuk waktu reporting verb.

Dua cara perubahan bentuk waktu pada reported speech :

Peraturan I

Kalau reporting verb itu past tense, bentuk waktu kata kerja dalam reported speech itu harus diubah ke dalam salah satu dari empat bentuk past tense.

Direct Speech - Indirect Speech

Simple present - menjadi - Simple past

He said ” The woman comes “ He said that the woman came

Dari contoh di atas dapat disimpulkan perubahan untuk bentuk waktu dari reported speech sebagai berikut :

Direct Speech                                Indirect speech

Simple present                              simple past

Present continuous                      past continuous

Present perfect                            past perfect

Present perfect continuous        past perfect continuous

Simple past                                  past perfect

Past continuous                          past perfect continuous

Future                                         past future

Present                                       past

 
Kekecualian :


Kalau reported speech berhubungan dengan kebenaran umum atau fakta yang sudah menjadi

kebiasaan, present indefinite atau simple present dalam reported speech tidak diubah ke dalam

bentuk lampau yang sesuai, melainkan tetap persis sebagaimana adanmya, contoh :


Direct Speech - Indirect Speech

He said, “The sun rises in the east” - He said that the sun rises in the east


Dalam reported speech, bila present tense diubah ke dalam past tense dengan peraturan I, kata sifat, kata kerja atau kata keterangan umumnya diubah:


Direct Speech                                        Indirect Speech

this = ini                                                     that = itu

these = ini                                                 those = itu

come = datang                                         go = pergi

here = di sini, ke sini                              there = di sana, ke sana

hence = dari sini                                     thence = dari sana

hither = ke tempat ini                           thither = ke tempat itu

ago = yang lalu                                       before = lebih dahulu

now = sekarang                                     then = pada waktu itu

today = hari ini                                      that day = hari itu

tomorrow = besok                                next day = hari berikutnya   

yesterday = kemarin                           the previous day = sehari sebelumnya

last night = tadi malam                       the previous night = semalam sebelumnya

next week = minggu depan                the following week = minggu berikutnya

thus = begini                                        so = begitu


Contoh :

He said, “I will come here”.               He said that he would go there


Akan tetapi kalau this, here, now dan sebagainya menunjukan pada benda, tempat atau waktu ketika berbicara, maka tidak dilakukan perubahan.


Agus said, “This is my pen”. - Agus said that this was his pen

(ketika berbicara pena berada di tangan pembicara)


Peraturan II

1) Bila reported speech kalimat berita

Dengan peraturan ini reporting verb dianggap dalam present atau future tense tertentu dan kapan saja ini terjadi, bentuk waktu dari kata kerja dalam reported speech tidak diubah sama sekali dalam mengubah direct menjadi indirect speech.


Reporting verb - Reported speech

Present tense - Any tense (bentuk waktu apapun)


Direct : She says to her friend, ” I have been writing “.

Indirect : She says to her friend that he has been writing. (tidak berubah)


Direct : She has told you, ” I am reading “.

Indirect : She has told you that he is reading. (tidak berubah)


Direct : She will say, ” You have done wrongly “.

Indirect : She will tell you that you have done wrongly. (tidak berubah)


Direct : She will say,” The boy wasn’t lazy “.

Indirect : She will tell them that the boy wasn’t lazy. (tidak berubah)


2) Bila reported speech merupakan kalimat tanya

a) Reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi ask atau inquire. Dengan mengulangi kata tanya dan mengubah tenses jika pertanyaannya dimulai dengan kata tanya diberitakan.

Direct 


He said to me, “Where are you going?”

He said to me, “What are you doing?”  

Indirect

He asked me where I was going

He inquired of me what I was doing


b) Dengan menggunakan if atau whether sebagai penghubung antara reporting verb dan reported speech dan mengubah tenses, jika pertanyaannya dimulai dengan kata kerja diberitakan :


Direct

He said to me, “Are you going

away today?”

He asked me , “can you come along?”  

Indirect

He asked me whether I was

going away that day.

He asked me if I could come along.



3) Kalimat perintah (imperative sentences)

Bila reported speech merupakan kalimat perintah, reporting verb say atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang menandakan :

· command (perintah), misalnya ordered, commanded, dsb yang berarti menyuruh, memerintahkan.

· precept (petunjuk, bimbingan, didikan), misalnya advised yang berarti menasehati.

· request (permohonan), misalnya asked yang berarti meminta, memohon.

· entreaty (permohonan yang sangat mendesak), misalnya begged yang berarti meminta, memohon (dengan sangat).

· prohibition (larangan), misalnya forbade yang berarti melarang.


Dalam perubahannya dari kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, modus imperatif harus diganti dengan infinitif. Tegasnya, reported verb (kata kerja yang diberitakan atau kata kerja dalam reported speech) harus diubah menjadi infinitive with to.


a) Command : 

Direct: He said to his servant, “Go away at once!”

Indirect:He ordered his servant to go away at once


b) Precept :

Direct: She said to her son, “Study hard!”

Indirect: He advised her son to study hard


c) Request :

Direct: He said to his friend, “Please lend me your pen!”

Indirect: He asked his friend to be kind enough to lend him his pencil


d) Entreaty :

Direct: He said to his master, “Pardon me, sir”

Indirect: He begged his master to pardon him.


e) Prohibition :

Direct: She said to her daughter, “Don’t go there”

Indirect: She forbade her daughter to go there


Kalau reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi reported verb ask, order, command dsb (tapi jika bukan forbid), predikatnya diubah ke dalam infinitive with to yang didahului oleh not atau no + infinitive with to.

Direct: She said to her daughter, “Don’t go there”

Indirect: She asked herdaughter not to go there.


4) Kalimat seru (exclamatory sentences)

Bilamana reported speech terdiri dari kalimat seru atau kalimat optatif, reporting verb say

atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang semacam itu seperti exclaim, cry out,

pray dsb.


a) Exclamatory sentences

Direct: He said, “Hurrah! My old friend has come”

Indirect: He exclaimed with joy that his old friend had come.


b) Optative sentences (kalimat yang menyatakan harapan, pujian, dsb)

Direct: He said, “God bless you, my dear son “

Indirect: He prayed that God would bless his dear son





Contoh Paragraf :
At the corner of the classroom, I sat alone. I still think about the task of mathematics that I haven’t finished. Suddenly I heard a noise voice in front of the class. I went out to know what happened. I saw Dee, my friend was fainting. Other people immediately took her into the school clinic. Then clinic nurse checking Dee’s heart beat and she told me not to disturb Dee because she had to rest1. I said to the nurse, “When she could soon recover?” The nurse told me that Dee was very unhealthy, and she should to recover her health in order to relearn in the classroom2. After that, I walk out from the clinic. I prayed to the god, I hope may she recover quickly. If she healthily, she will study now in the class with me.

Kata Direct & Indirect Speech Yang Terkandung :
1.   She told me not to disturb Dee because she had to rest. (Indirect speech - command)
Rumus : S + told me + not to + Verb 1 + O


    2.  The nurse told me that Dee was very 
        unhealthy, and she should to recover her
        health in order to relearn  in the classroom.
        indirect speech – statement)
        Rumus : S + told me(that) + S + was + Verb 1

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